This is the grave of Lieutenant John Andrews who was born in 1720 to Richard and Hannah Andrews and baptised at St. James the Apostle Church in Dover on 22nd May 1720. He joined a cavalry regiment at the age of 16 and served his country in several military campaigns during his lifetime.
In 1810 by the orders of the prince Regent (the future King George 1V) and by representation by the Duke of York (Frederick the son of king George 111), bestowed upon him an annuity of £501 in addition to the half pay he was then receiving.
He is buried in the church cemetery of St. Mary at the Walls (now Colchester Arts Centre).
The inscription on his grave stone reads:
“Sacred to the memory of John Andrews late a lieutenant of British Cavalry who died the 3rd December 1817 aged 97 years.
He served his country 81 years with fidelity and was present in the following campaigns and battles:
With Prince Eugene in the years 1736 & 1737
At the Battle of Dettingen in 1743 where he was distinguished as orderly Dragoon to George 11.
At the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745
At the Battle of Culloden in 1746
At the storming of the Morro Castle in the Island of Cuba in 1762.”
The section “With Prince Eugene in the year 1736 & 1737” must refer to Prince Eugene of Savoy (1663 – 1736) and the Polish wars of Succession of 1733 – 1738. This war was a major European war which was sparked by a Polish civil war over the succession to Augustus 11, which the other European powers widened in pursuit of their own national interests. Prince Eugene died in 1736.
The Battle of Dettingen:
This battle took place on 27 June 1743 at Dettingen on the River Main in Germany, during the War of Austrian Succession. The British forces, in alliance with those of Hanover and Hesse, defeated a French army under the duc de Noailles. It was the last time that a British Monarch (in this case George 11) personally led his troops into battle.
The battle straddled the river about 18 miles east of Frankfurt, with guns on the Hesian bank but most of the combat on the flat Bavarian bank. The village of Dettingen is today the town of Karlstein am Main, in the extreme northwest of the large state of Bavaria, some 200 miles from the Bavarian capital of Munich.
Battle of Fontenoy
This was fought on 11th May 1745, and was a major engagement of the War of the Austrian Succession, fought between the forces of the allied armies, comprising mainly Dutch, British, and Hanoverian troops under the command of the Duke of Cumberland, and a French army under Maurice de Saxe, commander of King Louis XV’s forces in the Netherlands. The battle was one of the most important in the war and considered the masterpiece of Marshal Saxe, serving France; King Lois XV and his son, the Dauphin, were present at the battle. Napoleon 1st later declared that the victory at Fontenoy prolonged the ancient regime and the monarchy in France by 30 years.
The Battle of Culloden
This battle was the final confrontation of the Jacobite uprising of 1745. On 16th April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) fought the English troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland at Nairn, near Inverness. The Hanoverian victory at Culloden decisively halted the young Jacobite, who intended to overthrow the House of Hanover and restore the House of Stuart to the British throne. Charles Stuart never again mounted any further attempts to challenge Hanoverian power in Great Britain, and this conflict was the last pitched battle to be fought on the mainland of Great Britain.
The Battle of Havana
This was a military action from March to August 1762, as part of the Seven Years War. British forces besieged and captured the city of Havana, which at the time was an important Spanish naval base in the Caribbean, and dealt a serious blow to the Spanish navy. Havana was subsequently returned to Spain under the 1763 Treaty of Paris that formally ended the war. The siege of El Morro was from the 11th June to 11th August 1762. This took place around the castle at the Morro Peninsular in Havana (built in 1589) with a land and navel attack on 1st July that year.